ppp p . . 77-1666.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


, , p, p -, ; p p pp-p p; pp , p pp p .
ppp p ,
. . 77-1666
1993 .
 


LT-RUS. . (RUS)
/ 2008 .

( 11/2008)

 

 

0 1837 .. .

 

.

 

I 1837-1921

 

I a 1837-1862

I b 1862-1883

.. ,

. C

I c 1883 -1912 .

Id 1912-1921 (1912) .

, ,

 

II 1920-1945

( )

IIa 1918-1923 , ,

. .

IIb 1923-1931 (

)

II c 1931-1941 , ,

,

- .

.

IId 1939-1945 , ,

, , , ,

 

 

III 1946-1966 (- )

 

III a 1945 - 1956 .. ,

(,

, -),

, , ,

.

III b 1956-1966 , ,

.

 

 

 

IV 1966-1985 ( )

 

,

,

,

. , .

.

 

V 1985-2002 ( , ),

 

V a 1985 -1992 ,

, .

.

V b 1992-2000 .

. Ļ Ļ

.. .

V 2000 -2003 ,

,

.

, ..

. ,

, ,

. -

.

 

VI 2003 -

 

VI a 2003-2008 ,

. .

.

, .

-,

.

VI b c 2008 .. .

, .

.



Railway periods of Russia and USSR

EPOCHS/periods YEARS

RAILWAY PERIODS RUSSIA

O

Before 1837 Appearance of first rail transport objects

Architecture of pre-railway period

I

1837-1921 Evolution of Russian Ministry of Communications

1a 1837-1883 Procurement of foreign steam locomotives and involving of foreign

railway companies to railways and locomotives building

1 b 1862-1883 Mass railway building with constitution of private railway

companies, different-type rolling stock engineering. Establishment

of Main Association

1c 1883-1912 Introduction of normal type steam locomotives and cars. Unified

State Emblem at Russian state railways.

Introduction of unified numeration of steam locomotives from A

To (1912). World War I and Civil War, armored trains, last

Ordering of tsars cars

 

II

1920-1945 Industrialization in history of USSR and Russia (Peoples commissariat of communications)

II a 1918-1923 Civil War and establishment of Soviet Regime, RSFSR, armored trains of the

Reds. First order of Soviet cars.

II b 1923-1931 First Soviet cars (mainly modernization of tsars projects)

II c 1931-1941 Appearance of new types of soviet steam-, diesel- and electric locomotives.

Orientation to American experience in locomotive and car production.

Constructivism in architecture.

II d 1939-1945 Finnish War, war at Chinese eastern railway, World War II and Great Patriotic

War, armored trains, supporting cars, heated goods vans, hospital cars

 

III

1946-1966 Post-war period (Ministry of communications of USSR 1946-1992)

III a 1945-1956 Mass exploitation of trophy railway equipment and equipment

manufactured at the works of Eastern Europe (steam locomotives,

cars, diesel trains), cessation of steam locomotive production,

appearance of new types of diesel locomotives, electric locomotives,

mass implantation of automatic coupling. Stalin architecture,

Khrushtchev architecture

III b 1956-1966 Mass building of new types of diesel-, electric locomotives, rolling

Stock

production at different works in USSR and in CMEA countries for

USSR. Total electrification of railways.

IV

1966-1985    Developed socialism in USSR (Ministry of communications of USSR, of Russia)

New numeration of rolling stock in network of Ministry of

Communications, mass production of electric and diesel

locomotives, supplies of large lots of modern locomotives

manufactured at works of CMEA countries for USSR.

Ferroconcrete ties, bearing-wall architecture. Special-purpose

rolling stock.

V

1985-2002 Perestroyka and dissolution of USSR (Ministry of communications of USSR, of Russia)

V a 1985-1992 Introduction of eight-digit numeration of cars and locomotives,

Telecommunications- and automatic systems modernization, new

Emblem of Ministry of communications. Common space of USSR.

Logotype (Soviet railways) instead of emblem with small

hammers.

V b 1992-2000 Division of soviet railways into railway organizations of CIS and

Baltic countries. Change of numeration and new color of rolling

stock of Russian railways and this of CIS countries. Logotype

Russian railways) instead of (see above) and international

railway codes on freight cars.

V c 2000-2003 General replacement of old bridges, reconstruction of railway facilities

Buildings, chaotic replacement of old architecture on railways by

modern style. Start of rolling stock refurbishment including

modernization through overhaul with service life prolongation,

general reconstruction of whole series of locomotives, cars,

appearance of electric trains-expresses with enhanced conveniences.

VI

2003-    Establishment of OSC Russian railways

VI a 2003-2008 General reconstruction of railway facilities., telecommunications

And alarm systems. Modernization of trunk railways for making of

high-speed trunk railways. Change of all color spectrum of railways

in whole with formation of distinctive color style. Refurbishment of

main railway terminals, creation of transmodal transport systems.

Appearance of private operative companies, holders of their own

Rolling stock.

VI b 2008- New symbolic of Russian railways. Wide-ranging building of new

types of locomotives, passenger and freight cars. High-speed rolling

stock operation on individual high-speed main-lines.